Prepared by J. Galpagalpa, D. Wanymuli, M. Wilkinson and L. de Veer.
Illustrations by Andie Clements, Jo-Anne Thorne, Zhou Xiaoping, and
Compiled by Emma Smolenaers, Sherilyn Dhamarraṉdji, Assistant Teachers and Andie Clements with assistance from Daisy Goṉḏarra and Fred Munyirinyir.
Design by Andie Clements.
Published in 1984 as the chapters 'Human Classifications' and 'Artifacts' in Dhuwal Djambarrpuyŋu Dhäruk Mala Ga Mayali' printed and published by Yirrkala Community School LPC. Additional entries compiled into 'Buku-Djuḻkmaranhamirr' chapter by Emma Smolenaers, Assistant Teachers and Andie Clements from Alan Walkers' Macassan influence on Aboriginal languages and culture of Northern Australia paper July 1987.
Waŋganymirriy waluy, baman', watay ḻuŋgurrmay, Maŋgatharra mala gan goyurr ŋoy-ŋupar mitjiyaŋdhu Takarrinalil.
One day, a long time ago, the Macassans travelled over water in a mitjiyaŋ (wooden sailboat) with the North wind, to Takarrina (Mission Beach).
Yolŋu mala gan dhärran raŋiŋur bili walal gan nhäŋal mitjiyaŋ räli gan waṉḏin. Waŋan walal, "Yol ŋunha?"
Yolŋu were standing on the beach, and they saw the boat coming. They said, "Who is that?"
Bala Maŋgatharray gurrupar rrupiya, ŋarali', galiku', berratha ga ḻuŋiny Yolŋuw mala.
Then the Macassans gave coins, tobacco, calico, rice and pipes to Yolŋu.
Yolŋuy mala milkuŋal dharripa Maŋgatharrawal raŋiŋur.
Yolŋu showed the Macassans trepang (sea cucumber) on the beach.
Yolŋuy ga Maŋgatharra mala gan bumar dharripa bala walulila ḻithanmaraŋal.
Yolŋu and Macassans all collected trepang and dried them out in the sun.
Ŋunhiliyin walal marrtjin buŋgulnha djäma.
Then lastly they all danced and celebrated.
Maŋgatharra roŋiyinan mitjiyaŋdhu walalaŋgingal barrkulil wäŋalil. Yolŋu mala waŋan "Djutjtjutjnha! Nhäma yalalaŋumirriy!"
The Macassans went back to their home far away. Yolŋu said "Goodbye! See you next year!"
Wiripuny, yolŋu walal gan nhina-nhinan wäŋaŋur.
Some people were sitting in their home.
Ga wiripuny walal yolŋu'-yulŋu marrtjin bala djatthunaraw wiyi'-wiyingu dharpaw mala. Ga gulkthurrnydja walal dharpany goŋ-waŋgany ga waŋgany bäythinyawuy.
They got up and went to cut some poles. They cut six of them.
Ga bulu walal djatthurr ḻurrkun' wiyi'-wiyin dharpa mälakmaranharaw.
Then they cut three long poles to lay crossways.
Bala walal ŋarŋgan mala yaw'yurr ŋurikiyin dharpawnha mala. Bala walal nhirrpa'-nhirrpara ŋunhi dharpany mala.
They dug some holes for the poles. Then they stood up the poles.
Ga beŋuryiny walal gondhaŋal ṉäkun mala bala gäŋal wäŋalila. Djäma walal ŋunhiyi ḻoḻuny dhawar'maraŋal ḻinygun.
Then they collected some bark and brought it back home. They finished building the shelter.
Ga ḻinygun dhuwal. Bala walal dhathar'yurra balan yuṯalila wäŋalil.
Then it was finished. They moved camp to their new shelter.
Dhuwal dhäwu Baḏurrupuy miyalkkuŋ waŋganykuŋ, miyalk yäku Yililpawuy. Djambarrpuyŋu ŋayi Yolŋuny, Djambarrpuyŋu wäŋa Ḻuŋurrpuy, Marapay ga Djarrayapuy.
This story was told by Djambarrpuyŋu elder, a lady named Yililpawuy. She is a Dhuwa person of the Djambarrpuyŋu clan and her family comes from Ḻuŋurrpuy, Marapay and Djarrayapuy in northeast Arnhem Land.
Told by Dorothy Yililpawuy Wanybarrŋa
Transcribed by Joy Bulkanhawuy Dhamarraṉdji and Hannah Harper
Illustrations by Shepherdson College students Jason Burarrwaŋa, Shanika Gemiyawuy, Martha Hewett, Basu Hammon, Neyo Ymayima, Kiki Gawla, Joshua Garrawurra, Geyonte Elisala, Eric Gaykamalju, Zebelda Yunupiŋu, Naomi Gamalaŋga, Jayron Daniels and Quinton Dhamarraṉdji.
Published by ARDS Aboriginal Corporation © 2019
This resource is not produced by the LPC - Shepherdson College and is not able to be accessed digitally. Please contact the LPC for copies of this book.
Dhuwandja dhäwu ḏuttji'wuy. Ŋunhi ŋuli ŋanapurruŋ gurthany bäyŋuthirr, bala napurr ŋuli ḏuttjin' djäma. Dharrwa dharpa mala ḏuttjiny' dhuwal.
This story is about making fire with firesticks. We do this when there is no fire or matches. There are many trees suitable for making firesticks.
Waŋganydja muka dharpa ḏuttji', ga wiripuny malwan.
Napurrnydja dhu lakaram waŋgany dharpa malwanbuy.
One tree is called ḏuttji' (Premna Obtusifolia), and the other is malwan (Native Hibiscus). The one we have used here is Native Hibiscus.
Ŋurruŋuny napurr ŋuli marrtji mayaŋgurr wo bam'palakurr, bala yurrnha nhäma dharpa malwandja.
Beŋuryiny ḏaw'maram goŋdhuny, bala yikiynha djäma wiriny'tjuna buyuwuyukuman. Dharpany dhuwal märrma', ŋäṉḏi'mirriŋu ga yothu. Ga dhuwandja ŋayi ga djäma yothu, ŋunhi ŋuli napurr ḏuttji'yun dhiyaŋ dharpay.
First, we look around a creek or coastal sand dune until we see a yellow hibiscus tree. We break off straight dead sticks by hand, and then scrape them with a knife to make them smooth. We use two sticks to make fire – a child stick and a mother stick. (This is because when the sticks are being used, they are likened to a baby sucking from the breast of the mother). Here the man (Andrew Galitju) is shaving the child stick smooth with a knife, because this is the stick that is twirled by rubbing between the hands.
Dhuwandja wuŋiḻi', ŋayi ga nhirrpan nyumukuṉiny' yothu, ga dhiyaŋun ŋuli wiripunhany nhäranhamaram.
In this photo he is driving a smaller sharpened stick into the child stick. This sharpened piece is broken off leaving its point inside the end of the child stick which is in contact with the mother stick during fire making, and from which the heat is derived.
Ŋurruŋuny ŋayi ga dhuwal wiriny'tjun ŋäṉḏi'mirriŋuny, waŋgany gali' yan.
The mother stick is then shaved flat, but only on one side.
Bala dhulu'wilaman yikiynha yothuwnha nhirrpanharaw.
Then the mother firestick is hollowed out with a knife so that the end of the child firestick will fit into it.
Mitthuna ga dhuwandja ŋarŋgany märr ŋayi dhu yalalany yupthun guḻa' gurtha man'pililila.
A little hole is cut at the side so that the smouldering sawdust will be able to fall out and collect on some bark.
Dhuwandja ŋayi ga yarrar'maram ḏäl man'pili, bala ŋayi dhu yalŋgikuman märr ŋayi dhu rulwaŋdhun guḻa ḏuttji'yunawuy gurtha, märr ŋayi dhu bondin nhärany.
Here he is stripping off some outer bark from a stringybark tree. He will soften this and break it up by rubbing it between his hands. Later he will place in it the smouldering product of his firesticks, whereupon the stringybark will act like tinder and catch alight.
Ga dhuwana ŋayi yalŋgikunhawuynydja man'pili. Wiripuny dhu märram räwak mulmu märr dhu bitjan bili nhära bondi.
Here is the softened stringybark. Alternatively dry grass can be used in the same way.
Dhuwandja ŋayi ḏuttji'yun yothuy dharpay, ga ḻukuynydja ŋayi ga dhurrparam ŋäṉḏi'mirriŋuny dharpany.
Here he is twirling the child firestick, whilst firmly holding the mother firestick in place with his feet (sometimes a few grains of sand are put inside the hollow of the mother firestick to help).
Ḏuttji'yun ŋäthil ŋuli ŋurruŋuny ga bäy ŋuli ŋayi ŋäṉḏi'mirriŋu gorrmur'yirra bala guḻany' ŋuli larryun man'pililila bala nhäran.
The firesticks are worked together until the mother firestick gets hot and an amount of smouldering ash falls out and collects on a strip of bark.
Nhäranhawuynydja ŋuli rulwaŋdhun yalŋgilila man'pililila mam'maram gurtha.
This smouldering pile is carefully placed in the ball of softened bark.
Bala boy'yuna gaŋga yan. Ga wataynha guŋga'yun mirithirrnydja. Ga beŋuryiny ŋuli ŋäṉarrnha djäma yindin gurtha.
Then he blows into it, only softly. Wind can also do the trick, (by holding up the ball of bark to the breeze or waving it slowly). In this way a flame grows and the bark catches alight.
Bala beŋuryiny rulwaŋdhun yindilil gurthalil.
Bala yurrnha ŋuli batha'-bathandja ŋarirriny', maypalnydja wo wäyindja mala dhiyaŋ ḏuttji'wuyyu gurthay.
This is then used to light a big fire on which we can cook fish, shellfish or meat.
(This translation is based on the Djambarrpuyŋu text but includes some extra notes in italics from observation of the process itself)
Dharpany dhuwal walŋa, ga dharpaynydja ŋuli gurrupan limurruŋ dhäwu ga mayali' ŋunhi limurr ŋuli dhäkay-ŋäma limurruŋgal ŋayaŋu. Nhäkurr ga wanha witjan limurr dhu dhukarrkurr marrtji ga märram ŋatha manymakmirr wäŋa, gapuŋur ga diltjiŋur.
Dharpa dhuwal Dhuwa ga Yirrtja dhäwumirr. Ŋorrany ŋayi ga dharpaŋurnydja mala riŋgitj, manikay, bäpurru ga buŋgul. Wiripuny mala dharpa munhawuynha bäpurru.
Dhuwa ga Yirritja dharpa mala wiripuny wurrki'mirr, borummirr ga ŋathamirr. Man'tjarr ŋuli bäki mirritjin rumbalwu ga dharpa rumbalnydja ŋuli bäki näku djämaw.
Gurrkurr guninyin ŋuli bäki miny'tjiw, djäma ŋuli gunga miny'tjimirriyam.
Trees are alive and give us stories and feelings. When the tide is out it is time to make fish traps from the trees that have been prepared.
Trees are Yirritja and Dhuwa and tell many different stories. They have ceremonial connections to the land with songs and songlines but some have been forgotten
Trees and everything they represent are very important to Yolŋu. Associated with one tree are many names and meanings. This is the same for flowers which also signal to Yolŋu directions of the wind.
Trees can be used for their resources such as leaves, bark to make string for bags and canoes. The flowers on trees show the season and what sea and land food is ripe and ready to collect. Leaves on trees can also be used for medicine and flowers show the direction of the wind.
Trees connect Yolŋu to the land.
Yo. Dhuwal dhu ŋarra gurrupan dhäwu miny'tjipuy, miny'tji ŋalitjalaŋ, Dhuwa ga Yirritja miny'tji. Miny'tji ŋayi ŋalitjalaŋ ga ŋorra, gamunuŋgu, djalkiri, wäŋaŋur mala ŋarakaŋur, ga bulu ŋayi ŋuli miny'tji buku-law'maram ŋali bäpurruŋur, ga bulu ŋayi miny'tji ga ŋorra ŋunha manikayŋur ŋalitjalaŋ. Dhuwaliyi mala ŋalitjilaŋ ḻuku miny'tji ŋunhi ŋali ŋuli buku-dhawaṯmaram. Ga yindi ŋunha Ŋärraŋur. Dhuwaŋur Yirritjaŋur Ŋärraŋur, miny'tji ŋayi ga ŋorra. Ga nhämuny' ŋalitjalaŋ riŋgitj miny'tji wäŋaŋur mala, ŋunhi ŋalitjalaŋ ga miny'tji maŋutji-lakaram ŋalitjalaŋ Dhuwaw ga Yirritjaw. Balanya. Warrpam' ŋayi dhuwali, ŋayi ga gungam miny'tjinydja wanha ŋayi garramat gäpaḻaḻyu ga ŋayatham ŋanyan maŋandhu Dhuway ga Yirrijtay.
Dhuwali ŋalitjalaŋ miny'tjiny. Ga ŋunha munathay. Balanya. Dhuwaw ga Yirritjaw.
I am about to tell a story about miny'tji, our miny'tji, Dhuwa and Yirritja miny'tji. Our miny'tji is here, ancestral designs, ancestral foundation, in lands, and also miny'tji lies across clan groups, and lies in our songlines. Such ancestral miny'tji is what we enact (we make ancestral past appear in the present).
There in the big ceremony, Ŋärra, in Dhuwa and Yirritja Ŋärra, miny'tji is there. Miny'tji is associated with our sacred, ancestral places, that is what the miny'tji shows us, Dhuwa and Yirritja. Like that. All miny’tji is held, where miny'tji is in the water, in the land, or in the clouds up above, Dhuwa and Yirritja clouds hold it.
This is our miny'tji. And the earth holds and protects it, it’s just like that. For Dhuwa and Yirritja.
Ŋurruŋuny Bäpa Sheppy ga miyalk nhanŋu marrtji Miliŋinbilil dhuŋgarray 1930'-thu. Ga balanyamirriy ŋayi gan wuŋuḻi' märraŋal yolŋu-yulŋuny ga wäŋa malany.
Dharrwany mirithirrnydja ŋunhiyi wuŋuḻi' mala dhuyun yurr bäydhin. Ga wiripuny mala ŋunhiliyi wuŋuḻi' yaka manymak nhänharaw miyalkurruwurruŋ ga djamarrkiḻiy' yaka ŋunhiny mala wuŋuḻi' dhuwal djorra'ŋur.
Ga wiripuny, dhuwal wuŋuḻi'ŋur limurruŋ ŋaḻapaḻmirr mala. Walalnydja Galpakalpay ga wiripuwurr mala ḏirramuwurryu dharaŋan walalany wuŋuḻi'ŋur, ga wiripuny walal yakan dharaŋan.
Ga dhiyaŋuny wuŋuḻi' ga ḻiya-marrtjinyamaram limurruŋgalaŋawal ŋaḻapaḻmirriwal.
Djämany linyu dhuwal yäku ga mälk ga bäpurru ga yol walalaŋ gurruṯumirr. Ga bäydhi mak linyu ga bawalany wukurri. Ga balanya.
Before coming to Galiwin'ku the Reverend Shepherdson and his wife began at Milingimbi in the 1930s. In those early years he took photographs of people and places.
Many of those photographs were taken at ceremonies but the ones in this book are suitable for everyone to see.
There are others which cannot be seen by women and children and they do not appear in this book.
These photographs are of our own people. Galpakalpa and other old men recognise many of the people, but others they do not recognise.
These photographs are to help us remember our old people. Next to the photos we have written the name, subsection, tribe and relationship to a living person. Please excuse any mistakes.
Currently no translation available for this text.
Dhuwandja dhäwu gungapuy, wanhal nhe dhu gunga maḻŋ'maram ga miny'tji mala gungaw. Dhuwal mala miny'tjiny gungawnydja gam':
yellow - buthalak
red - miku
white - watharr
This story is about where you find pandanus and dyes for making baskets.
These are the colours for pandanus:
Guṉinyi - Yellow (Great Morinda, Morinda Citrifola)
Yiriŋaniŋ - Red (Red Stemmed Lily, Haemodorum Brevicaulo)
Watharr - White or Natural
Baman' ŋäthil 1928-thu, Harold ga Ella Shepherdson gan marrtjin nhinanharaw yolŋuwal Miliŋinbi. Yolŋunydja mala gurrupar maṉḏany Bäpa Sheppy ga Ŋäṉḏi Ella.
A long time ago, in 1928, Harold and Ella Shepherdson came to live with Yolŋu at Milingimbi. Yolŋu called them Bäpa Sheppy and Ŋäṉḏi Ella.
Bala walal ŋurruyirr'yurr djäma djaṯthurr dharpa yäku ḻanapu bala dhuḻ'yurr wäŋa ga buṉbu bukumirriyanharaw.
They all began to cut wood called cypress and build houses and a church.
Ga Bäpa Sheppy marŋgikuŋal ga dhäwu lakaraŋal Garraywalaŋawuy.
And Bäpa Sheppy was teaching and telling stories to everyone about God.
Bala waŋganymirr waluy, walalaŋ Miriŋuny bunanan Miliŋinbiny. Walal gan guyaŋin, “Limurr dhu marrtji ga maḻŋ'maram wiripu wäŋa.”
Then one day, the Japanese came to Milingimbi. Everyone thought, “Let’s go and look for a new place to live”.
Ŋurruŋuny walal bunan wäŋaŋur yäku Worralŋur, yurr galki Ḻaŋarra.
First they went to a place called Worralŋur, close to Howard Island.
Bala walal marrtjin ga-ga-ga-ga ḻarruŋal wäŋaw. Bala walal dhawaṯthurr Guḻmanŋur dhiyal Galiwin’ku. Galiwin’kupuy Yolŋu mala waŋan Bäpa Sheppy-wal “Ma. Manymak nhe dhu gäma dhuwal mitjin Guḻmanlil.”
Then they travelled and searched and searched for a home. They found Guḻman (now known as Mission Beach) at Galiwin’ku. The Yolŋu at Galiwin’ku said to Bäpa Sheppy “It is okay for you to bring the mission to Guḻman.”
Bala 1942, Bäpa Sheppy, Ŋäṉḏi Ella, Walalipa, Bataŋga ga gurruṯumirr mala marrtjin rälin Guḻmanlila marthaŋayyu yäkuy Ḻarrpandhu. Gäŋal walal ḻanapu, biḏurul ga wiripu mala.
So in 1942, Bäpa Sheppy, Ŋäṉḏi Ella, Walalipa (Wili), Bataŋga and their families came to Guḻman in the boat named Larrpan. They brought timber, fuel and other things.
Ga dhiyaŋuny bala nhuma ga nhäma bitjarr gan ŋäthil. Nhaltjarr gan ŋurruŋu mitjin dhiyal dhärran Galiwin'ku.
So now you know the story of how the Mission began here at Galiwin'ku.
This is Ḏatam's mother. Her name is Raŋan.
This is Ḏatam's father. His name is Ḏawu.
One morning they all went and helped mother go and get bark for painting. They drove for a long time until they came to a place by a river.
Mother and father chopped a big long bark.
Nhawi barked at something in the bush.
Ḏatam helped mother chop a small bark.
Here they are both putting bark on the fire and then placing it to make it flat.
The next day her mother started painting a story on bark. Ḏatam did the same on a little bark.
The following day they saw white footprints made with white clay all over the floor and on the bark, a dog’s footprints! “Hey! Look what Nhawi’s done!” they all shouted.
“Wow, it’s lovely isn’t it?” said Ḏatam. She looked at her own bark. “I will finish Nhawi's painting.”
And she did.